A dietitian explains this potential benefit and more.

Medically reviewed by Elizabeth Barnes, RDN

Beet juice comes from the beetroot plant (Beta vulgaris), which has been extensively studied for its health benefits. Beetroot is rich in nutrients and polyphenols (special plant components). It has several benefits, including boosting athletic performance, supporting liver health, and lowering blood pressure.

The following article covers the uses of beet juice, its nutritional value, and safety considerations.

What Is Beet Juice?

In its purest form, beet juice is pureed or blended beets and then strained to extract a smooth liquid. Water or citric acid is often added to create a more palatable, shelf-stable beet juice.

Beet juice contains vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds such as betanin, betaine, and nitrate

Dietary nitrates from beet juice are converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the body. NO is a naturally occurring gas. It contributes to the enlargement of blood vessels (vasodilation), which delivers more oxygen throughout the body. Oxygen is essential for generating energy, whether it’s for exercise, maintaining health, or thinking.

Betalains are the compounds that give beets their red and yellow colors. Betalains also provide beets with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There are two types of betalains: red-violet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Most betacyanins are betanin.

Betaine is a non-essential amino acid (amino acids required for good health that can be made in the body) found in beets. However, the specific amount of betaine in beet juice varies. Betaine has been studied for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and its effect on liver function.

Beet Juice Benefits

Beet juice’s nutrition profile confers a plethora of health benefits.

Beet Juice is Nutritious

An 8-fluid-ounce serving of beet juice contains the following nutritients:

  • Calories: 62 kilocalories (kcal)
  • Protein: 2 grams (g)
  • Carbohydrates: 15 g
  • Fiber: 3 g (11% of the daily value, or DV)
  • Magnesium: 35 milligrams (mg) (11% DV)
  • Phosphorus: 35 mg (5% DV)
  • Potassium: 315 mg (12% DV)
  • Folate: 65 micrograms (mcg) (16% DV)

The nutrition profile varies depending on harvesting, processing, and juice preparation. Many juices contain water to dilute the concentration and make it more palatable.

Magnesium participates in more than 300 reactions in the body. It is vital for metabolism, muscle and nerve function, blood pressure regulation, and bone health, among other processes. 

Phosphorus is essential for bone and tooth health, cell membrane integrity, and energy production. 

Potassium is necessary for normal cell function. 

Folate is required for DNA synthesis and protein metabolism.  

Nutrients in whole, raw beets are more concentrated than in beet juice. Essential minerals like potassium and folate are higher in whole beets than beet juice.

Likewise, the nutrition profile of beet powder differs from beet juice.

It Helps Manage Blood Pressure

Beet juice’s nitrate and nutrient content improves blood pressure. 

Beet juice increases circulating nitrate concentrations, which is converted to nitrous oxide. Greater nitrous oxide availability expands blood vessels, reducing blood pressure.

Beet juice’s effect on blood pressure is impactful: Each 2-unit increase (measured in millimeters of mercury, or mm Hg) in systolic blood pressure (the top or first number) raises the risk of death from heart attack by 7% and stroke by 10%. 

One meta-analysis observed a 3.55 mm Hg decrease in systolic blood pressure and a 1.32 mm Hg reduction in diastolic blood pressure (the bottom or second number) with beet juice supplementation among people with high blood pressure (hypertension). 

Research suggests beet juice affects blood pressure 30 minutes to three hours after ingestion. But the effects are short-lived. Some studies show that the effects of beet juice diminish within 10 hours.

However, not all research supports the benefits of beet juice for blood pressure. Other factors affecting blood pressure include:

Nitrates may not be the only compound of beet juice responsible for its effects on blood pressure. Antioxidants contribute additional benefits that enhance beet juice’s blood pressure–managing properties.

Beet juice should be drunk daily to reap its benefits. One meta-analysis showed better results with more than 14 days of beet juice supplementation.

Bioactive Compounds in Beet Juice

Betalains are bioactive compounds in beet juice. Betalains comprise approximately 0.8 to 1.3 grams per liter (g/L) of beet juice.

Betanins are a type of betalain. Some research suggests betanins have low bioavailability. Bioavailability reflects how well and easily a nutrient is absorbed by the body. Because of their low bioavailability, the health benefit betanins offer remains unclear. 

One study did not detect betanin in participants’ plasma after drinking beet juice, indicating that betanin may be lost or degraded during digestion. Other research examining betanin content in urine noticed bioavailability may depend on the person.

Still, more research is needed on humans to elucidate the beneficial effects of betanin.

It Boosts Athletic Performance

Beet juice influences fatigue to enhance athletic performance. Muscles use a significant amount of oxygen during exercise to generate energy. Beet juice’s effect on nitrous oxide and oxygen delivery to muscles reduces fatigue caused by physical exertion (exercise).

Some research suggests supplementing with beet juice decreases the rate of oxygen the body uses during exercise (VO2). Exercise at a high VO2 is exhausting and challenging to sustain for prolonged periods. By decreasing the VO2, beet juice supplementation improves exercise tolerance.

The mechanism behind beet juice’s effect on VO2 is unclear, but it may be related to increased mitochondrial efficiency or function. Mitochondria are organelles essential for energy production.

Specific components of beet juice also affect athletic performance. Nitrates improve energy production and reduce exercise-induced fatigue, enabling longer and more efficient performance. Moreover, betalains minimize exercise-induced muscle damage to support recovery. 

Although beet juice’s impact on athletic performance is promising, the benefits may be limited to healthy individuals or recreational athletes, not elite or well-trained athletes.

It Helps Cognitive Function and Brain Health

Beet juice affects cognitive function and performance, particularly activities that use the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for speech, memory, and executive function (a group of high-level mental skills that control and coordinate other cognitive abilities and behaviors).

One study gave participants 450 milliliters (mL) (15 ounces or nearly 2 cups) of beet juice containing 5.5 millimoles (mmol) of nitrates and found improvements in cerebral blood flow that correlated with better cognitive performance.

Nitric oxide from nitrates in beet juice supports cerebral blood flow, vasodilation, and nerve cell (neuron) activity.

It Has Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Benefits

Research shows that beet juice protects against cell damage and has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

According to preliminary cell-based research, beet juice’s unique chemical properties make it a more effective antioxidant than other beet products. Cell studies have observed that the antioxidant content of beet juice increases after digestion.

Additional preliminary research reveals betaine and betanin remove dangerous, unstable molecules called free radicals, that contribute to inflammation and chronic conditions. Moreover, betanin directly inhibits the inflammatory process. In vitro studies (a test tube study) suggest that betanin reduces inflammatory molecules as effectively as some common anti-inflammatory medications.

Still, additional research on beet juice’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects is needed in humans.

It Supports Liver Health

Beet juice supports liver health in multiple ways. Specifically, antioxidants in beet juice prevent liver damage, whereas betaine protects against cell damage and reduces liver fat storage.

One study observed reduced triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ("bad cholesterol") and increased high-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ("good cholesterol") among people with metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) who drank 250 mL (5 ounces) of beet juice daily for 12 weeks. MASLD is the build-up of fat in the liver.

Moreover, beet juice reduced fatty liver accumulation among participants.

Research suggests beet juice lowers fat (lipid) levels by binding to bile acids. The liver forms bile acids from cholesterol. Bile is necessary to digest fat. 

Components of beets attach to bile acids, preventing them from being reabsorbed in the bloodstream. Instead, these bile acids are removed from the body. When the liver needs to make more bile, it pulls cholesterol from the bloodstream, reducing the amount of LDL in circulation. 

However, limited evidence exists on the ability of beet juice rather than whole beets to bind bile acids.

How to Use Beet Juice

Studies evaluating the effects of beet juice use varying dosages, so it is difficult to determine an ideal amount for health. However, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends limiting juice to 8 ounces or less daily. 

Some studies suggest specific dosages for chronic or acute supplementation to boost athletic performance. Chronic supplementation involves drinking 70 mL of beet juice twice daily for three to six days before an athletic event. Conversely, acute supplementation involves consuming 70 mL of beet juice two to three hours before exercise. 

There are several ways to incorporate more beet products into your meals for health benefits. Add beets to any dish for a dash of sweetness, a pop of color, and a boost of nutrients.

Mix beet juice into smoothies or use it as the liquid base for soups, sauces, or oatmeal.    

Beets can be purchased raw, with just the beetroot or both beet and stems. When storing beets, leave the skin on and keep them in a dry, cool place.

Raw beets should be washed and peeled before consumption. It is safe to eat beets raw, but the flavor may be more bitter than when cooked. 

For greater ease, purchase cooked or pickled beets. Simply remove them from the package, slice them, and add them to salads, grain bowls, soups, and pasta, or eat them on their own.

Chopping and cooking beets can get messy. Betalains are potent dyes that will turn your hands, clothes, and any surface they touch red, violet, or yellow.


Avoid beet juice if you're allergic to its components (parts). Seek immediate medical attention if you have a severe allergic reaction (itching, hives, shortness of breath).

Be careful when using beet juice if you have a history of or are at risk of kidney stones. Beets are high in oxalate, a compound that contributes to kidney stones. 

Some people who drink beet juice notice a change in their urine color. This is due to unmetabolized betanin compounds leaving the body. No health issues are associated with beet-induced pink urine (beeturia).

A widely held historic belief was that too many nitrates would produce cancer-causing (carcinogenic) molecules. However, no research exists linking beet juice with the production of carcinogens. 

In fact, some population-based studies show a decreased risk of cancer with nitrate intake, perhaps because many dietary sources of nitrates are vegetables.


Beet juice is a highly nutritious beverage that is beneficial for any diet. It is associated with numerous health benefits and is full of vitamins, minerals, nitrates, and bioactive compounds like betalain and betanin. Beet juice drunk regularly can boost your health by lowering blood pressure and increasing athletic performance.

Read the original article on Verywell Health.

2024-05-10T16:30:05Z dg43tfdfdgfd